The names Bond, James Bond. In **Moonraker ** with Roger Moore (1979) 007 jumps out of a plane without a parachute to avoid an assassination attempt. He catches up with, Jaws, arch-baddie, in mid-air and takes his parachute. Jaws survives his fall by landing on a big top circus tent.

In **Point Break** with FBI agent Johnny Utah, Keanu Reeves, leaps from a skydiving plane after Patrick Swayzes’ characer, Bohdi, who has taken the last parachute. Utah catches Bohdi in mid-air, and after a tense confrontation with a gun, both survive using Bodhi’s chute. The remake was in 2015.

There are more movie and real life stories at the **Free Fall Maths** link.

Note: We’ll assume Bhodi and Utah have equal horizontal velocities (plane exit velocity plus wind) so the following calculations only involve the vertical or falling velocity. The terminal velocities used for Bhodi and Utah are realistic estimates.

]]>So mathpigs, here is a small taste of what you would need to do to land a small aircraft in an emergency if the pilot is unconscious/dead.

Find airspeed indicator on instrument panel.

Instrument Panel Piper PA-28

Check speed.

Knots or mph or kph?

Avoid red zone. Too fast.

Knots outer scale. mph inner scale. Recommended velocity between blue & red.

1. Call MayDay MayDay MayDay

2. Look for plane ID. It will be on instrument panel somewhere.

3. Check fuel.

On the Piper Cherokee there are 2 fuel tanks, R & L. Check both.

Check aircraft operating handbook to see fuel consumption and remaining time in air.

Quick calc.

Follow Emergency Landing Checklist in aircraft operating handbook for** Power OFF or Power ON landing****.**

Keep in mind, if your air speed is too low you can drop from air, but the higher the landing speed the bigger crash.

Crash energy increases with the square of speed. It’s a parabola!!!!!

The likelihood of a passenger with

The likelihood of a passenger with

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Alrighty then, buckle up your math belts and get ready to rock the world of algebra! Algebra, my math-hungry amigos, is like the ultimate superhero of mathematics. It’s all about unleashing the power of unknowns and solving the most mind-boggling puzzles known to humanity.

In the realm of algebra, we ditch the boring old numbers and bring in the big guns: variables! These sneaky little devils represent unknown quantities that are just begging to be discovered. They’re like the Sherlock Holmes of math, always on the hunt for clues to crack the case.

Equations are the name of the game in algebra. They’re like the secret codes that hide the answers to life’s greatest mathematical mysteries. We tinker and tamper with these equations, using super cool math moves to bring order to the chaos. We combine like terms, simplify expressions, and rearrange the pieces of the puzzle until we uncover the truth.

More rules **here**

But wait, there’s more! Algebra isn’t just about solving equations; it’s about exploring patterns and relationships. It’s like a math treasure hunt where we unearth the underlying structure of the universe. We create graphs, plot points, and analyze the data to reveal the secrets that numbers and formulas hold.

Algebra is all about flexing your math muscles and honing your problem-solving skills. It’s a mental workout that strengthens your logical thinking and boosts your brainpower. It’s like math aerobics for your mind, keeping you sharp and ready to tackle any mathematical challenge that comes your way.

So, my math-loving amigos, embrace the power of algebra. Let your curiosity run wild, and let your mathematical genius shine. Unlock the hidden mysteries, unravel the enigmas, and conquer the world of numbers with confidence and style. Algebra is your superpower, and with it, you can conquer the mathematical universe! Mathspig, out!

]]>**Angels and Demons** (2009) Tom Hanks character, Robert Langdon, hero of Dan Brown’s jumps from a helicopter and falls thousands of feet into Rome’s Tiber River and survives, of course.

**Ahhhh! Look up. It’s raining Tom Hanks**!!!!!**The Hulk** (2003) The Hulk hops from the Golden Gate bridge onto a jet fighter, whose pilot tries to get rid of him at high altitude. The Hulk falls off and plummets many thousands of feet into the bay. He survives.

There are 2 factors we must consider when jumping or diving from a great height:

1. Surface Impact

2.Water depth

According to the Free Fall website falling into water is not a good survival strategy.

‘Someone falling without a parachute from more than 2,000 feet or so would be falling quite a bit faster than 100 miles per hour (161 kph) The folks who have survived falls into water have had streaming parachutes above them, which probably slowed their falls to the 60 mph range (97 kph). Having a streaming parachute helps in another way because it aligns the body in a position where the feet enter the water first.’

The website goes on to explain that water is an INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID. It’s like landing on concrete. Landing in mud, on snow, on trees, on circus tents etc helps break the fall. Moreover, jumping off a bridge into turbulent sea may be safer than jumping into calm water.

On 24th Oct 1930, Vincent Kelly, 31, while working on the **Sydney Harbour Bridge** fell 170 ft (52 m) into Sydney Harbour and survived.

**A champion diver he did several summersaults and landed feet first. He broke a couple of ribs as he did not enter the water at a perfect RIGHT ANGLE but rather a few degrees off perpendicular.. **

**The next issue is, if you are going to dive or jump into water from a great height and, miraculously, survive the impact, how deep should the water be?**

Olympic divers often practice their dives in a bubble pools (like a spa). This reduces the impact for a bad dive but the water must be much deeper. **Sports Smart Canada** recommends a water depth of double the height of the drop. But is this realistic if, say, you are jumping or diving from the top of a waterfall into aerated water.

You can work out approximate depths needed if you were jumping into calm water from heights such as below:

How deep do you plunge? The answer is surprising because, in fact, you decelerate really fast in water.

See REd Bull Jump Science **here**

Thanks to Rod Vance for the **Fluid Engineering Calcs (**done by hand … not by computer program) for calculating the depth of water when your feet stop moving. That is the minimum depth of water needed for the jump (See graph below)

NOTE: Even with this fancy maths assumptions must be made about the transition epoch-half in/half out of the water.

Assuming you survive the impact and you breath out through your nose – to stop water going up your nostrils really fast- then you will not go any deeper than approx 4 m or 13 ft from a platform of 20 m (65 ft) or less.

If you’re diving into water from, say, a helicopter as in the** Demons & Angels** movie you don’t need extremely deep water. Assume Langdon was at 100m (328 ft) or the height of The Statue of Liberty(above) or a 33 story building when he jumped, then extrapolating the graph (above), maybe, a depth of 5m (16 ft) would do.

If you want to see what looking down from a 58.8 m (193 ft) platform looks like check out thisWorld Record Jump by Laso Schaller.

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Every action hero gets into a fistfight. James Bond, Jason Bourne, Indiana Jones. Then there are all the stars known for their fight scenes. Sylvester Stallone ( Rocky), Arnold Schwarzenegger (True Lies), Jackie Chan (Any movie), Bruce Willis (Die Hard 1,2, 3 etc), Mel Gibson (Lethal Weapon I, II, III etc), Jean Claude Van Damm (Blood Sport, Street Fighter), Brad Pitt (Fight Club), Fast & Furious 1,2,3 and so on.

We can work it out. Measurements taken at The University of Manchester have shown that local boxing hero Ricky ‘The Hitman’ Hatton really does live up to his name. (DailyScience)

Ricky ‘The Hitman’ Hatton can pack a punch!!!!!

Similar results were found at Uni Manchester BBC (**Force of boxer’s punch measured)**

**So one punch is equal to being hit by a car …… if only for a split second!!!!!!!!!!! Nevertheless you can be killed by this one punch.**

You’ll find some great punching physics** here**

This is the rework of a **previous post.**

Action heroes such as **Indiana Jones** or even film kids like **Tom Sawyer** or **The Goonies** who go into a cave, anabandoned house, a crypt or a catacomb light the entire place with one match, one candle, a lighter or a cellphone**.**

Is this real?

Now mathspigs, if you are interested in a career in stage/film lighting or even architecture you will need this maths.

60Watt light globe tells us how much power it uses. But some 60W globes are brighter than others. Light is measured with weird units.

**USA **uses** Foot-candles. **Can you imagine the pickup line ‘You brighten up my world like a footcandle’? A foot-candle is the brightness of a candle 1 foot away. Now think of a bubble around the candle. Brightness is mostly measured using one square foot or one square metre of that bubble:

1 **LUMEN **= 1 Footcandle/ft squared

1 **LUX **= 1 footcandle/m squared

Don’t get too hassled by these units. As a rough rule:

From graph you can see by 3m a Birthday Cake is not very bright even in a haunted house or crypt.

**Challenge:** Draw a graph of the brightness of your own Birthday Cake!

**Big Challenge**:Draw a graph of your Teacher’s Birthday Cake!!!!!! Ahhhh!!!!

We know:

1 candle = 1 LUX

Now compare the brightness of 1 candle to the brightness of other sources of light:

If you want sufficient light to live your everyday life you’d need:

This is a rework of a **previous post** with full calcs.

Every volcano disaster movie from **Volcano** (1997) with Tommy Lee Jones to **Dante’s Peak** (1997) withPierce Brosnan someone somewhere tries to out run a lava flow. Is this possible?

The answer is maybe. You will find everything you want to know about lava flows **here.**

On January 10,1977, at **Nyiragongo** lava sprang from the sides of the volcano moving at speeds up to 40 miles per hour (60 km/hr). About 70 people were killed.

Measuring the temperature of lava. Photograph by R.L. Christiansen, U.S. Geological Survey, January 9, 1973.

The fastest Lava flows recorded were in Hawaiiin 1950 when Mauna Loa erupted. The lava traveled at 10 kilometers per hour through thick forest. But once the lava flows became established and good channels developed, the lava in the channels was flowing at up to 97 kph.

Speed of average sprinter = 16 – 24 kph

Every volcano disaster movie from **Volcano** (1997) with Tommy Lee Jones to **Dante’s Peak** (1997) with Pierce Brosnan someone somewhere tries to out run a lava flow. Is this possible?

The answer is maybe. You will find everything you want to know about lava flows **here**.

On January 10,1977, at **Nyiragongo** lava sprang from the sides of the volcano moving at speeds up to 40 miles per hour. About 70 people were killed.

Measuring the temperature of lava. Photograph by R.L. Christiansen, U.S. Geological Survey, January 9, 1973.

The fastest Lava flows recorded were in Hawaiiin 1950 when Mauna Loa erupted. The lava traveled at 6 miles per hour through thick forest. But once the lava flows became established and good channels developed, the lava in the channels was flowing at up to 60 mph.

Speed of average sprinter = 10 – 15 mph

We see – in this case – hear a pattern and then attribute meaning to this pattern – It’s a conspiracy!!!! – when there is no pattern and no meaning!!!!! So Apple found when designing their iPod shuffle feature later on the iPad and iPhone.

“When Apple first introduced the shuffle feature on its iPods, the shuffle was truly random; each song was equally likely to be picked than any other. However, the randomness didn’t *appear *random, since some songs were occasionally repeated, and customers concluded that the feature contained some secret patterns and preferences. As a result, Apple was forced to revise the algorithm. ‘We made it less random to make it feel more random,’ said Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple’

p68 **The Decisive Moment How the Brain Makes Up Its Mind** Jonah Lehrer (Text Publishing 2009)

Try it. Pick 12 songs to make your playlist.

**USE The Random Number Spinning Wheel HERE**

Keep in mind that writing a program for a **RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR is difficult** as all programs are based on some pattern. Click the Spinning Wheel link above and spin the wheel 12 times.

What happened? Did you get too many repeats like the iPod Shuffle customers who complained?

]]>The CUBE GIF (above) is mesmerising. But there are many different ways to look at a cube.

**Here are links to 10 Amazing Ways to See a Cube:**

**Clink on Link in Heading to see how to make this cube.**

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