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**The following maths is suitable for Year 9+**

**but can be presented to lower grades just to show**

**maths is cool!**

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**The following maths is suitable for Year 9+**

**but can be presented to lower grades just to show**

**maths is cool!**

So Mathspig is helping the kid next door with Grade 11 Math.

Here is the revision Q:

This is the sort of Q that makes students hate ALGEBRA. (Solution by Mathspig below)

POINTLESS

GRINDING

HEADACHE INDUCING

This equation looks like a chicken ran through some ink and ran across the page.

Why do so many MATH work sheets look like this?

The result:

One way to tackle a long and complexmath problem is to **defront the classroom** and solve it in groups.

Here is the Q in orginal form:

NOTE: With a proof, you have to prove that one side of the equation

equals the other.

We are good at graphs in maths, even funny graphs, but we often forget the power of story telling. Here’s a story about HOW NOT TO DO your MATHS HOMEWORK*.

*NOTE: Homework has never been recorded as the cause of death of a 13 year old.

Read longer version of Hugo Does His Homework here.

A major and disasterous earthquake has just hit Indonesia. It is the job of engineers to calculate and incorporate – as far as possible- safety margins into the structures of buildings, dams, power plants and even pipe lines. Observers have noted that the skyscrapers in Fukushima wobbled during the recent 8.9 magnitude earthquake in Japan.

This is intentional, as rigid structures can snap in strong winds or during earthquakes.

But the maths used to calculate SKYSCRAPER SWAY is straightforward.

The Earthquake Engineering website offers a simple explanation.

Short, rigid buildings are damaged in earthquakes because they shake very fast. 10 story buildings have a period of oscillation of about 1 second the same as the earthquake pulse. This is VERY dangerous.

Tall, flexible buildings can withstand an earthquake because they can sway. They are like a very large, slow moving tuning fork. If they are TOO RIGID they snap. If they are too flexible the people on the 100th floor would be throw all over the place.

The 59-story steel-construction Citicorp Centre, NY (pictured) has an oscillation time of 6.7 seconds. Details Google Books.

The 102-story brick clad Empire State Empire Building sways about 8cm ( 3 inches) whereas the 110-story steel -mesh World Trades Centre Towers, NY, before they collapsed swayed over 1 m ( 3 ft 5 inches).

One more thing. You want buildings to have springy foundations so they don’t snap at the base and fall over.

The idea is not to strengthen the building, but to reduce the earthquake generated seismic forces acting upon it. This can be done in 3 ways.

Details Base Isolation Specialists

Details Damper Supplier

** **

The 508m (1,667-foot) Taipei 101 Tower would sway back and forth up to 60cm (2 feet) each way within five seconds. This according to Wired magazine is highly vomit inducing (barfomatic?).

The Taipei 101 engineers included a 662 tonne (730-ton) counter giant pendulum to act as a counter weight.Some buildings use a big block of concrete.

It is pushed in the opposite direction to the building sway to dampen the oscillation.

Wired magazine includes the equation for Skyscraper Sway acceleration (See definition of terms @ Wired link):

But I’m going to use a student friendly equation from Wind Engineering for Large Structures.

Calculus Equation **here.**

Mathspigs, you can just look at this equation and see how to change it to make a building EARTHQUAKE SAFE. Keep in mind that k, the stiffness constant actually decreases for taller buildings.

Imagine you are designing a building to withstand the 8.9 magnitude earthquake. You have already added base isolation. Now you have three options to work with: building mass (m), damping constant (c) and stiffness constant (k). Remember the earthquake force is constant. If you change just the stiffness of the building (k) what happens to the distance of sway(x)?

Engineers have to come up with the optimum design for the strongest structure with least acceleration (but enough building mass for strength), greatest damping and least sway at the lowest cost.

Structural Engineer Ron Klemencic explained on the Discover News that a simple rule of thumb for calculating skyscraper sway was to simply divide the buildings height in by 500 because the building codes demand the building fit a 1:500 sway ratio.

The tallest building in the world at 2,716 feet (828m), the Burj Khalifa, Dubai, would sway back and forth about 5.5 feet or 1.7 m.

**Ahhhhhhhhh! But you would have to drag Mathspig onto the 168th floor screaming.**

**But mathspigs you can work out the sway on the top ten tall buildings in the world.**

Death by Caffeine: The Math Part 1 USA UNITS here.

The lethal dose for **caffeine** is about 150 milligrams per kg of body weight. While the average person’s **caffeine** consumption is around 200 milligrams a day, the Mayo Clinic advises against exceeding 500 to 600 milligrams per day.

This work titled Timing is Everything is by street artist ABOVE in London.

You may want this much energy but be warned, energy drinks can kill.

It would take a ridiculously huge number of ANGRY WOMBAT energy drinks to kill a 14 year old weighing, say, 48 kg. Nevertheless, some kids are more sensitive to caffeine than others and then much lower levels of consumption of energy drinks can be fatal.

See Death by Caffeine: The Maths Part 2 METRIC

Here is the work (see below) TIMING IS EVERYTHING by street artist ABOVE in London showing the timing.